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Introductory Notes

Unless otherwise stated, all facts and figures are for the United States and are current as of April 2000. Every statistic from a given year was chosen based on availability and not to slant the results by singling out a specific year that was different from others. The category headings do not state or imply facts. They are used for organizational purposes only.


A note concerning the controversial nature of this topic

Criticism from a reader and a response from Just Facts


* There is at least five times more genetic variation within races of people than there is between them. (1)

* Every race has the same coloring pigment in their skin. It is called melanin. The difference between the skin color of one person and another is primarily due to the amount of melanin present in their skin. (2)


* Charles Darwin was an advocate for the abolition of slavery,(3) but in a book entitled The Descent of Man, he wrote:


At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace, the savage races throughout the world. At the same time the anthropomorphous [human-like] apes … will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man and his nearest allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in a more civilized state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape as low as a baboon, instead of as now between the negro or Australian and the gorilla.(4)

* Thomas Huxley was a British biologist who was a leading supporter of Darwin's theory. Huxley gave lectures to promote the acceptance of evolution and was called "Darwin's bulldog." In 1871, he wrote:


No rational man, cognizant of the facts, believes that the average Negro is the equal, still less the superior, of the white man. And, if this be true, it is simply incredible [to assume] that, when all his disabilities are removed … he will be able to compete successfully with his bigger-brained and smaller-jawed rival, in a contest which is to be carried out by thoughts and not by bites.(5)(6)(7)


* In 1874, John Tyndall, incoming President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, stated in his inaugural address that Darwin's:


success has been great; and this implies not only the solidity of his work, but the preparedness of the public mind for such a revelation. … The human brain is the organized register of infinitely numerous experiences received during the evolution of life, or rather during the evolution of that series of organisms through which the human organism has been reached. … Thus it happens that the European inherits from twenty to thirty cubic inches more of brain than the Papuan. Thus it happens that faculties, as of music, which scarcely exist in some inferior races, become congenital in superior ones. Thus it happens that out of savages unable to count up to the number of their fingers, and speaking a language containing only nouns and verbs, arise at length our Newtons and Shakespeares.(194)


* In Washington, D.C., for a period of more than 50 years, a segregated black public high school equaled and outperformed the majority of white public high schools on tests dating back to 1899. (8)


* Pygmy is a word used to classify populations of black people in which the average height of adult males is less than 5 feet. (9)


* In the early 1900s, an article in the magazine Scientific American described Pygmies as "ape-like, elfish creatures." Another article in the same publication stated: "Even today, ape-like Negroes are found in the gloomy forests, who are doubtless direct descendants of these early types of man…" (11)

* A Pygmy by the name of Ota Benga was taken from the Belgian Congo in 1904 and displayed at St. Louis World's Fair in the anthropology exhibit as a "savage." He was later moved to the Bronx Zoo where he was exhibited in a cage with a parrot and an orangutan. (9)

* In 1906, the New York Times published an article about Ota Benga. It stated:


The exhibition was that of a human being in a monkey cage. The human being happened to be a Bushman, one of a race that scientists do not rate high on the human scale, but to the average nonscientific person in the crowd of sightseers there was something about the display that was unpleasant….

It is probably a good thing that Benga doesn't think very deeply.(10)

* Protests led by black ministers and the threat of legal action forced the zoo director to free him. (11)

* In 1916, Ota Benga committed suicide. At the time of his death the Bronx Zoo director wrote that he "did not possess the power of learning." (10)

* Ota Benga learned to speak and read English. Second and third generation African pygmies living in Western civilizations have the same average as the general population on IQ tests. (11)(7)

* In 1914, the American Book Company published the textbook, A Civic Biology. It was used in American high schools for more than 30 years. In the section on evolution, the textbook states:


At the present time there exist upon the earth five races or varieties of man, each very different from each other in instincts, social customs, and, to an extent, in structure. There are the Ethiopian or negro type, originating in Africa; the Malay or brown race, from the islands of the Pacific; the American Indian; the Mongolian or yellow race, including the natives of China, Japan and the Eskimos; and finally, the highest type of all, the Caucasians, represented by the civilized white inhabitants of Europe and America.(12)

* I.Q. test results are affected by environmental factors. On average, Orientals and Jews score higher on I.Q. tests than Europeans, and whites score higher than blacks. On an intelligence test done by the U.S. Army, blacks from Ohio had a median score of 49.50 and whites from Mississippi had a median score of 41.25. (7)

* The following describes a study designed to measure the effect of teacher expectations on the performance of students: A group of children (kindergarten through fifth grade) was tested for learning ability. The teachers for the next school year were given a list of names, and were told that the test had identified these children as exceptional learners. However, the list was actually produced at random and had nothing to do with the test. At the end of the school year, all of the students were tested again. The children identified to the teachers as exceptional learners had increased their scores by as much as 15 to 27 I.Q. points. (13)

* In 1923, the Princeton University Press published a book written by the Chairman of the National Research Council entitled, A Study of American Intelligence. It reads:


The essential point is that there are 10,000,000 Negroes here now and that the proportion of mulattos to a thousand blacks has increased with alarming rapidity since 1850. According to all evidence available, then, American intelligence is declining, and will proceed with an accelerating rate as the racial admixture becomes more and more extensive. The decline of American intelligence will be more rapid than the decline of intelligence of European national groups, owing to the presence here of the Negro. These are the plain, if somewhat ugly, facts that our study shows. The deterioration of the American intelligence is not inevitable, however, if public action can be aroused to prevent it. There is no reason why legal steps should not be taken which would insure a continuously progressive upward evolution. The steps that should be taken to preserve or increase our present intellectual capacity must of course be dictated by science and not by political expediency.(7)

* The Marcus Garvey Schools in Chicago and Cincinnati, the Marva Collins Schools in Philadelphia, and the Ivy Leaf School are all founded, owned, and operated by blacks. Academically, nearly 100% of the students are at or up to four years ahead of their grade level. (14)

* As of 1999, Public School # 161 in Brooklyn, N.Y. has a student body comprised of 91% blacks and 8% Latinos. The average class size is 35 students. Over 80% of the kindergartners can read. The sixth graders have the second highest reading scores in the state of New York. Nationally, the sixth through eighth graders placed in the 93rd percentile in reading and the 96th percentile in math. (15)(16)

* Some have claimed that the slow development of technically advanced civilizations in Africa is proof that black people are intellectually inferior.


* Communication has been an essential element in the development of technology. Europeans traversed the Atlantic Ocean using rudders (invented in China), trigonometry (invented in Egypt), and the Arabic numeral system (invented in India). Linguistic diversity has restricted communications in Africa, which has about 10% of the world's population and about 30% of the world's languages. (17)


* Throughout most of Africa's history, geography has isolated people groups from one another. Up until the modern era, water has been the most efficient and inexpensive mode of transportation/commerce in advanced civilizations. The coastline of Africa is smooth and contains limited natural harbors, and as such, it has been largely unnavigable, as are most of the rivers in Africa. (17)

Slavery in the United States

* The first Africans enslaved in mainland North America were brought to Virginia in 1619. (18)

* By 1670, all Africans living in the colonies were classified as slaves. (18)

* The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4th of 1776. It states:


We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.(19)

* Slavery has existed throughout recorded history and still taking place in some countries. (18)(20)

* Within a thirty year period surrounding the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the ratification of the Constitution, every Northern State in the U.S. abolished slavery. Within a hundred year period surrounding the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the ratification of the Constitution, the Constitution was amended to abolish slavery. (18)(19)(21)(22)

* 21 of the 39 people who signed the United States Constitution at one time or another voted to prohibit slavery. (192)

* Among the Founders who owned slaves and released them were John Dickinson, Ceasar Rodney, William Livingston, George Washington, George Wythe, and John Randolph. (23)

* Founders Benjamin Rush and Benjamin Franklin started America's first antislavery society in 1774. John Jay was the president of an antislavery society in New York. (23)

* Other Founders who were members of societies for the elimination of slavery include, but are not limited to: William Livingston, Richard Bassett, James Madison, James Monroe, Bushrod Washington, James Wilson, Charles Carroll, William Few, John Marshall, Richard Stockton, and Zephaniah Swift. (23)

* Due in part to the efforts of these Founders, slavery was abolished in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts in 1780, Connecticut and Rhode Island in 1784, New Hampshire in 1792, Vermont in 1793, New York in 1799, and New Jersey in 1804. (23)

* George Washington signed into law a bill proposed by Constitution signatory Rufus King that prohibited slavery in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa. (23)

* Quotes from the Founding Fathers regarding slavery:


I can only say that there is not a man living who wishes more sincerely than I do to see a plan adopted for the abolition of it. – George Washington (23)


[W]hy keep alive the question of slavery? It is admitted by all to be a great evil. - Charles Carroll, Signer of the Declaration of Independence (23)


That men should pray and fight for their own freedom and yet keep others in slavery is certainly acting a very inconsistent as well as unjust and perhaps impious part. - John Jay, President of Continental Congress, Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, and Governor of New York (23)


[I]t ought to be considered that national crimes can only be and frequently are punished in this world by national punishments; and that the continuance of the slave trade, and thus giving it a national sanction and encouragement, ought to be considered as justly exposing us to the displeasure and vengeance of Him who is equally Lord of all and who views with equal eye the poor African slave and his American master. - Luther Martin, Constitutional Convention Delegate (23)


Domestic slavery is repugnant to the principles of Christianity… It is rebellion against the authority of a common Father. - Benjamin Rush, Signer of the Declaration of Independence (23)

* Thomas Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence. He inherited slaves and never set them free. (24)(25)

* Jefferson's original draft of the Declaration of Independence included a condemnation of the King of England for his role in the slave trade. It was removed from the final draft at the prodding of South Carolina and Georgia, who wished to continue the slave trade. (26)

* Jefferson stated that the peaceful coexistence of blacks and whites in this country was not practical because of "prejudices entertained by the whites," and "recollections by the blacks of the injuries they have sustained." He proposed to free all slaves and "establish them elsewhere in freedom and safety." (25)

* In 1779, Jefferson proposed a law to end slavery in Virginia. (23)

* As President, Jefferson supported the abolition of the slave trade. (23)

* Quotes from Thomas Jefferson regarding slavery (arranged chronologically):

What a stupendous, what an incomprehensible machine is man! Who can endure toil, famine, stripes, imprisonment and death itself in vindication of his own liberty and the next moment be deaf to all those motives whose power supported him through his trial, and inflict on his fellow men a bondage, one hour of which is fraught with more misery than ages of that which he rose in rebellion to oppose. - 1786 (25)


I congratulate you, my dear friend, on the law of your State, for suspending the importation of slaves, and for the glory you have justly acquired by endeavoring to prevent it forever. This abomination must have an end. And there is a superior bench reserved in heaven for those who hasten it. - 1787 (25)


As far as I can judge from the experiments which have been made, to give liberty to, or rather to abandon persons whose habits have been formed in slavery is like abandoning children. - 1788 (25)


Personally, I am ready and desirous to make any sacrifice which shall ensure their gradual but complete retirement from the State, and effectually, at the same time, establish them elsewhere in freedom and safety. - 1817 (25)


I can say with conscious truth that there is not a man on earth who would sacrifice more than I would to relieve us from this heavy reproach in any practicable way. - 1820 (25)


The abolition of the evil is not impossible; it ought never therefore to be despaired of. Every plan should be adopted, every experiment tried, which may do something towards the ultimate object. – 1825 (25)

Present Day Slavery

* According to a Clinton administration State Department Report, the northwest African nation of Mauritania has up to 90,000 blacks enslaved by Arabs. (27)(28)

* As of 2000, the government of Sudan, the largest country in Africa, requires that everyone practice the religion of Islam. The majority of people in the southern portion of Sudan are black Christians and animists. The Sudanese government has attempted to force them into "peace camps" which offer the option of converting to Islam or forced starvation. (29)(30)(31)

* The government of Sudan has killed over 1 million of its civilians through overt violence and forced starvation. As of 1999, more people have been killed in Sudan than in Kosovo, Bosnia, Rwanda, Chechnya, and Somalia combined. (32)(30) Government supported militias conduct raids on villages in the south where they kill the men and take women and children as slaves. (20)

* The Sudanese government has denied that they condone or participate in slavery. They attribute reports of slavery to local wars between tribes in which hostages are taken. As of 1999, the Sudanese government refuses to allow monitors to investigate the situation and will not allow unauthorized flights (including those carrying food) into the southern portion of the country. (33)(31)

* In 1996, two reporters from the Baltimore Sun, a crew from NBC's Dateline, an official from Christian Solidarity International and a board member of the American Anti-Slavery Group took a covert flight into southern Sudan. They interviewed former slaves, families of enslaved people, 2 Arab militia officers, and a person who travels to the northern part of the country to purchase slaves from their captors for return to their families. All of the witnesses interviewed stated that the government of Sudan sponsors and supports the slave trade. (33)(34)

* The Clinton State Department's 1995 human rights report on Sudan states:


All the reports and information received indicates the direct and general involvement" of the Sudanese army and government supported militias in "the abduction and deportation of civilians from the conflict zones to the north.(33)

* Charles Jacobs, president of the American Anti-Slavery Group, sent photos and documents about slavery in Sudan to Jesse Jackson. Jesse Jackson's office told him they did not want to get involved because the issue sounded "anti-Arab." (27)

* In 1995, Louis Farrakhan visited Sudan as a guest of the government. As of 1999, Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam deny that slavery exists in Sudan and challenged the press to find proof of it. (18)(35)(34)

* In January of 1999, Christian Solidarity International took CBS News on a covert flight into Sudan where they purchased 1,000 slaves, mostly women and children, for about $50 a person. The former slaves were returned to their villages. (20)

* In 1998, Barb Vogel, a Colorado schoolteacher, read a newspaper article about Sudanese slave children to her 5th grade class. The class raised $22,000, which was used to buy the freedom of enslaved Sudanese children. (36)(37)

* The United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF) called these actions "absolutely intolerable." (20)

* UNICEF stated:


While UNICEF understands the humanitarian instincts of school children in the United States and others to purchase the freedom of slaves, the sobering truth is that these efforts will not end the enslavement of human beings.(38)

* Since 1995, Christian Solidarity International has been making covert trips into Sudan to purchase the freedom of slaves. As of 1999, they have emancipated more than 20,000 people. There are no reported instances of any slaves being retaken. (39)(20)

* UNICEF stated they would like to "find a political solution" to end slavery in Sudan. Their solution involves the creation, publication, and dissemination of "Ground Rules" for soldiers involved in the fighting. UNICEF officials met with military representatives "under trees and in thatch huts" to talk to them about "humanitarian principles." UNICEF called this a "remarkable effort." (38)(40)

* UNICEF has stated that the money used to purchase freedom for enslaved people fuels the arms trade. (20)(36)

* The enslaved people are liberated with Sudanese currency. At the equivalent of 50 U.S. dollars to free a person, multiplied by 20,000 freed, this has amounted to about 1 million dollars over a period of 4 years. (20)(39)

* UNICEF has called for the United States and other countries to cancel any debt owed to them by 38 "highly indebted poor" countries including Sudan, so they can "restructure their budgets toward more child centered priorities." (41)


* As of 1999, the Sudanese government is spending a million dollars a day on an internal conflict in which they are targeting civilians and enslaving women and children. (30)(183)

* The majority of the money used to fund this conflict has been borrowed against expected earnings from an oil project. A consortium of companies has partnered with Sudan in a venture that is projected to produce 450 million dollars in revenue for Sudan during it's first year of business (1999/2000). (30)(29)(42) This figure is projected to grow in the following years. A search of the database on UNICEF's web site, which contained over 2600 documents, found no condemnation or mention of the oil consortium or any of the companies involved in it. (Words searched for: "Sudapet", "Greater Nile Petroleum", "Occidental", "Talisman".) (30)(29)(42)

* A company that was originally involved with this oil project is a firm named Occidental.(43)

* In 1996, Congress passed and Bill Clinton signed legislation that prohibits anyone in the United States from engaging in financial transactions with countries who are classified as state sponsors of terrorism. The Clinton administration classifies Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism. Occidental is listed on the New York Stock Exchange. (44)(43)

* There was a 6 week period between when Congress passed this legislation and when Bill Clinton signed it into law. During this time, the chairman of Occidental was an overnight guest at the White House and slept in the Lincoln bedroom. Two days later, Occidental's Political Action Committee (PAC) gave $100,000 to the Democratic National Committee. As of April of 2000, this is twice the amount of any other donation that Occidental's PAC has given in the past 9 years. (45 a, b, c)

* Five months later, on the same day the law became operative, the Clinton Treasury Department exercised a provision in the law that allows them to grant exceptions. The exception that was granted permitted U.S. corporations and individuals to do business in Sudan. (43)

For more facts with a timeline pertaining to Sudan, Occidental and U.S. politicians, click here

Civil Rights

* After the Civil War, the United States government placed federal military troops in the South and black people began to vote in significant numbers. Two black men were elected to the U.S. Senate and 20 were elected to the House of Representatives.(58)

* In 1877, all federal troops left the South and local governments created voting literacy tests. Since it was against the law to teach a slave to read, most blacks in the South could not pass these tests. In some localities, the payment of a voting fee was required in order to vote. This effectively prohibited most blacks and poor whites from voting. (59)(58)

* In the early 1890's, Republicans in the House of Representatives passed a voting rights bill by a vote of 155-149. The law was intended to protect the rights of black people to vote. At the time, Democrats in the Senate were blocking another bill that the Republicans wanted to pass. The Republicans negotiated a deal with the Democrats to drop the voting rights bill in exchange for allowing the other bill to go forward. (57)

* Records show that between 1889 and 1918, at least 2,522 black people were lynched. (57)

* By 1901, the number of black voters in Louisiana had fallen from a high of 130,000 to 1,342. (57)

* In 1901, George White of North Carolina left the House of Representatives. He was the last black Congressman from the South until 1965. (57)

* In his 1960 "State of the Union" address, Republican President Dwight Eisenhower called for a new civil rights law to enforce voting rights for minorities. This bill established a system of federally appointed election monitors, and made it a crime to defy school desegregation orders from federal courts. It was passed by Congress and signed into law by Eisenhower over the objections of Southern Democrats who conducted one of the longest filibusters in the history of the Senate in an attempt to stop the bill. (59)

* In 1964, a civil rights bill was passed by Congress and signed into law by Democrat President Lyndon B. Johnson. The law provided for enforcement of the "constitutional right to vote" and made it unlawful for governments or employers to discriminate based upon race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. (60)

* As of February of 2000, Al Gore's web site contains a written transcript and video of a speech that Gore made on the topic of civil rights. Gore's transcript reads:


My commitment to civil rights is a deeply personal one. I watched my father when he was, a U.S. Senator from Tennessee, take courageous stands for civil rights. He opposed the poll tax in the 40s, and supported civil rights in the 50s, he supported voting rights in 1963, and was one of two Southern Senators to refuse to sign the hateful Southern Manifesto opposing integration in our schools. He lost his Senate seat because of his stands.(61)

* R.D. Davis, a member of Project 21 (a black conservative organization), researched the voting records from the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and found:


  • Al Gore Sr. voted against the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • Al Gore Sr. participated in a 74 day filibuster to delay and weaken the legislation.
  • Al Gore Sr. proposed an amendment to the Civil Rights Act that would have kept federal funds flowing to schools that defied court desegregation orders. It was defeated by a vote of 74-25. 23 Democrats and 1 Republican voted for it. (62)(63)

* In 1999, Democrat Presidential candidate and former U.S. Senator Bill Bradley gave a  speech he entitled, "Why I Am a Democrat." In it, Bradley stated:


For me, the crucial moment came one hot June evening, when the Senate voted on the Civil Rights Act. I was in a corner of the Senate chamber, looking on. …

But that night I became a Democrat, because I knew in my heart that I belonged with the party who had worked hardest to make America a better place for everybody.(64)

* 69% of Democrats in the Senate voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 82% of Republicans in the Senate voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (62)(63)

* In the same speech Bradley stated:


And yes, we are the party that said all people really are created equal, and passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to make that the law of the land.(64)

* 63% of Democrats in Congress voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and it was signed into law by Democrat President Lyndon B. Johnson. 79% of Republicans in Congress voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (62)(63)

Affirmative Action

Note: To avoid the confusion that has surrounded the definition of term, "affirmative action", we are supplying 3 examples for the purpose of understanding the facts contained in this section:

Example 1 (Outreach): A college conducts an outreach in minority communities to inform and encourage attendance at the school.

Facts regarding this type of affirmative action are not covered, because my research did not find anyone that objected to this type of action.

Example 2 (Set-asides): A city sets aside 20% of their contracts and only allows minority owned businesses to bid on them.

Facts regarding this type of affirmative action will be covered.

Example 3 (Preferences): A business is evaluating applicants for a position they need to fill. The business factors the race of the applicants into the selection process.

Facts regarding this type of affirmative action will be covered.

* The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a non-profit organization. Their web site states they are the "nation's foremost advocate of individual rights", and are "devoted exclusively to protecting the basic civil liberties of all Americans." (65)

* The ACLU's "Briefing Paper on Affirmative Action" states that affirmative action programs "do not grant preferences based on race." (66) (emphasis added)

* Proposition 209 was an initiative put on California's election ballot in 1996. It reads:


The state shall not discriminate against, or grant preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin in the operation of public employment, public education, or public contracting.(67)(emphasis added)

* The ACLU opposed it. (68)

* Proposition 209 was passed by the voters of California in 1996. (69)

* After Proposition 209 passed, the ACLU attempted to have a federal district court overturn it. The Clinton Department of Justice filed a "friend of the court" brief supporting the ACLU in this effort. (70)

* As of February 2000, the ACLU's "Briefing Paper on Affirmative Action" reads:


There exists widespread confusion about what constitutes affirmative action and what does not. Much of this confusion can be laid at the doorstep of the anti-affirmative action movement which has deliberately distorted the definition and goals of this legal remedy.

It also states:


1965 - The term "affirmative action" is used for the first time by President Johnson in E.O. 11246, requiring federal contractors to take "affirmative action" to ensure equality of employment.(66)

* The term "affirmative action" was not used for the first time by President Johnson in 1965. It was used for the first time by President John F. Kennedy in 1961 (Executive Order 10925.) The order reads: "it is plain and positive obligation of the United States Government to promote and ensure equal opportunity for all qualified persons, without regard to race, creed, color, or national origin…" (71)(72)

* The executive order makes no mention of using race as a factor in hiring, firing, or contracting. Three times in this executive order when Kennedy addressed the topic of race, he used the phrase, "without regard to." (72)

* The Democratic National Committee opposed Proposition 209. (73)

* Their position paper on Proposition 209 states that they support affirmative action programs, provided they meet Bill Clinton's "standards of fairness" which he outlined in 1995. The first standard is:


No quotas in theory or in practice.(73)

* The 1996 Delegate Selection Rules of the Democratic National Committee require that the racial composition of the delegates from each state is equal to the racial composition of the voters from each state. (74)

* Bill Clinton's "second standard of fairness" is:


No illegal discrimination of any kind, including reverse discrimination.(73)

* A memo was circulated by the Clinton administration Defense Department that stated:


In the future, special permission will be required for the promotion of all white men without disabilities.(74)

* Bill Clinton's "third standard of fairness" is:


No preference for people who are not qualified.(73)

* The Clinton administration Federal Aviation Administration published a "diversity handbook," which stated:


The merit promotion process is but one means of filling vacancies, which need not be utilized if it will not promote your diversity goals.

A Federal Aviation Administration job announcement stated:


Applicants who meet the qualification requirements … cannot be considered for this position…. Only those applicants who do not meet the Office of Personnel Management requirements … will be eligible to compete.(74)

* Bill Clinton's "fourth standard of fairness" is:


As soon as [an affirmative action] program has succeeded, it must be retired.(73)


* Two Clinton aides prepared a document entitled, "Affirmative Action Review: A Report to the President." It did not recommend retiring any of the existing 171 federal affirmative action programs. (74)

* In June of 1999 at a fundraiser in Los Angeles, Al Gore stated:


I've heard the critics of affirmative action. They're in favor of affirmative action if you can dunk the basketball or sink a three-point shot. But they're not in favor of it if you merely have the potential to be a leader of your community and bring people together, to teach people who are hungry for knowledge, to heal families who need medical care.(75)

* As of February of 2000, Al Gore's web site contains three speeches that state:


They're in favor of affirmative action if you can dunk the basketball or sink a three-point shot.(75)(76)(77)

* Of the more than 50 articles about affirmative action reviewed for this list of facts, no "critic of affirmative action" has favored affirmative action in basketball or any other sport. As of 1999, black people comprise about 12.4% of the population in the U.S., and over 80% of professional basketball players. (78)(145)

* As of the late 1990's, the Suffolk County Police Department in Long Island, New York runs a cadet program for minorities only. The applicants have to score a 70 or better on the police academy entrance exam to be admitted. Whites must score in the high 90's to be admitted to the police academy. (79)

* Title 7 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 states:


It shall be an unlawful employment practice… to adjust the scores of, use different cutoff scores for, or otherwise alter the results of, employment related tests on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.(60)

* In January of 2000, ABC News announced a policy of tying "bonuses for executives to how well they do in employing minorities." (181)

* In January of 2000, NBC announced they would double their purchasing from minority owned businesses and add a minimum of one minority writer to each of it's second year shows in the fall. (182)

* Title 7 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 states:


It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer … to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.(60)


* 20,000 people in the city of Houston, Texas signed a petition to bring the following initiative to a vote. It stated:


The city of Houston shall not discriminate against, or grant preferential treatment to, any individual or group on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity or national origin in the operation of public employment and public contracting.(80)

* The Democrat mayor of Houston (Bob Lanier) and the city council reworded the ballot initiative into this question:


Shall the charter of the city of Houston be amended to end the use of affirmative action for women and minorities in the operation of city of Houston employment and contracting, including ending the current program and similar programs in the future?(80)

* The ballot measure was defeated by a vote of 54% to 46%. The New York Times published the story on page 1. When a similar measure was passed in the state of Washington, the New York Times published the story on page 25. (81)

* Title 7 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 states:


Nothing contained in this subchapter shall be interpreted to require … preferential treatment to any individual or to any group because of the race, color, religion, sex, or national origin of such individual or group on account of an imbalance which may exist with respect to the total number or percentage of persons of any race, color, religion, sex, or national origin….(60)



* With regards to affirmative action, the 2000 Republican Party Platform states:


We believe rights inhere in individuals, not in groups. We will attain our nation's goal of equal opportunity without quotas or other forms of preferential treatment. It is as simple as this: No one should be denied a job, promotion, contract, or chance at higher education because of their race or gender. Equal access, energetically offered, should guarantee every person a fair shot based on their potential and merit.(197)


* With regards to affirmative action, the 2000 Democratic Party Platform states:


Al Gore has strongly opposed efforts to roll back affirmative action programs. He knows that the way to lift this nation up is not by pulling the weakest down, but by continuing to expand opportunities for everyone who wants to achieve.(198)



* 1997 Median household income:


Asian/Pacific Islander $45,249
White $38,972
Hispanic $26,628
Black $25,050


* As of 1999, 66% of black children and 18% of white children are born to unmarried mothers. (83)(14)

* 1997 Median family income:



Married two
parent families
Single parent


White       $52,098 $25,596
Black $45,372 $17,585


* In June of 1999, at a fundraiser in Los Angeles, Al Gore stated:


At a time when African-Americans earn just 62 cents on each dollar that white Americans earn, don't you think it's time for an equal day's pay for an equal day's work?(75)

* The 62% statistic cited by Gore does not account for the amount or type of work being performed, or the education, skill, or experience of the income earners. (18)

* According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 1994:


  • Black women with high school diplomas earn 3% more income than white women with high school diplomas.

  • Black women with some college education earn 6% more income than white women with some college education.

  • Black women who are college graduates earn 7% more income than white women who are college graduates. (185)

* Using data from 1991, a study published in the American Sociological Review analyzed the incomes of men who are 26-33 years old and work full time. Comparing people with similar educations, black men earned 19% less than white men. Comparing people with similar math, verbal, and reading skills, black men earned 9% more than white men. (185)

* As of 1999, about 45% of blacks and 67% of whites own homes. (184)

* As of 1997, 75% of black married couples between the ages of 45 and 54 own homes. 81% of black married couples older than 54 own homes. (114)

* The ACLU and NAACP have accused mortgage companies of discrimination because they reject blacks at a greater rate than they reject whites. (86)



Rate of: Blacks Whites
Mortgage rejections (1989)     50% 26%
Poor credit histories (1999) 48% 27%


* In 1996, the ACLU filed a legal complaint against the mortgage company, PHH. The complaint was based upon the fact that PHH had higher rejection rates for blacks and for people buying in predominately black neighborhoods. (86)(88)

* The ACLU analyzed PHH's lending patterns while controlling for factors that included the applicant's income. The unequal rejection rates between whites and blacks persisted. (88)

* The ACLU did not analyze PHH's lending patterns while controlling for poor credit histories. (88)

* As of 1999, blacks with incomes between $65,000 and $75,000 have a higher percentage of poor credit histories than whites with incomes of $25,000 and below. Whites with incomes between $65,000 and $75,000 have a similar percentage of poor credit histories as Asian people with incomes of $25,000 and below. (The numbers cited are from a Freddie Mac study that classified an individual as having a poor credit history if they had 2 bills more than 30 days overdue, one bill more than 90 days overdue, a lien, judgment, or bankruptcy in the past two years.) (184)

* For people with incomes between $45,000 and $65,000, the rates for poor credit histories are as follows:


Asians 15.7%
Blacks 48%
Hispanics 28%
Whites 21.6%



* PHH does not have retail stores or outlets. They market their mortgages over the phone and on the Internet, and do not require anyone to submit their race with their application. (88)(89)


* According to the National Center for Education Statistics, as of 1994, 17-year-old black students are 3.4 years behind 17-year-old white students in mathematics, 5.4 years behind in science, and 3.9 years behind in reading. (185)

* As of 1998, the average black child attends school in a district that spends as much money per student as the average white child's district. (91)

* Upon entering the Washington, D.C. public school system, students are shown to be average. As of 1995, public schools in Washington, D.C. cost $8,920 per student (among the highest in the U.S.) and rank near the bottom on almost every level of performance. As of 1998, 62.3% of the population in Washington, D.C. is black. (92)(93)

* A study published in 1999 compared the math scores of black students in public schools and Catholic schools in Washington, DC. The study controlled for factors which included the education of child's mother, the child's family status (one or two parents in the home), the availability of reading materials in the home, and the median income of the neighborhood in which the child lived. The study used data from 1996. The results are as follows:

  • The average black eighth-grade student who attends Catholic school has math scores better than 72% of comparable students in public schools.

  • The effect of attending a Catholic school has a greater positive effect on mathematics achievement than the effect of reducing the student to teacher ratio from 25:1 to 15:1.

  • The effect of attending a Catholic school has a greater positive effect on mathematics achievement than the effect of a student's mother having some college education.

  • The effect of attending a Catholic school has a greater positive effect on mathematics achievement than the effect of living in a two-parent family. (94)

* As of 1999, 7% of black children in public schools score higher than the national average on standardized tests, while 32% of black children in schools on military bases score higher than the national average on standardized tests. (95)


* As of 1999, the Cleveland public school system has a high school drop out rate of 46% and less than 3% of the students graduate on time and pass Ohio's basic proficiency exam. 70% of the students are minorities. (96)(97)

* In 1996, Cleveland instituted a school choice program. School choice is an initiative that offers parents the option of selecting the school their child will attend. Money that is currently spent on the education of a student at a public school is provided to his/her parents in the form of a voucher that can be used at the school of their choice. (98)(99)

* As of 1999, the cost per student at the average public school is more than twice the tuition per student at the average private school. (100)

* Harvard University conducted a study of the Cleveland school voucher initiative. The study found that parents with children enrolled in the private school voucher program were more satisfied than public school parents with every aspect of their children's schools including academics, safety, and discipline. (98)

* New private schools were formed in response to the introduction of the Cleveland voucher program. The schools established and announced a policy of accepting every child who applied. The American Federation of Teachers (one of the 2 largest teacher's unions) suggested these schools were inferior and criticized them because they had no "educational track record." The Harvard study found that within one year, students attending these schools made statistically significant improvements to their national percentile rankings in reading and math. (98)

* On the day before the start of the 1999/2000 school year, a judge appointed by Bill Clinton, Solomon Oliver, blocked the voucher program in Cleveland. The majority of the children participating in the program are black. (96)(101)

* Out of more than 3,000 children enrolled in the program, the Cleveland Plain Dealer (a local paper) was able to find 2 children who returned to public school. (96)

* After being criticized, the judge changed his decision so that the children who were enrolled in previous years would be allowed to continue in the program, but the 587 children who were supposed to start that year were barred from doing so. (96)

* As of 1999, the NAACP opposes school vouchers. Their web site states:


The principal objective of the NAACP is to ensure the political, educational, social and economic equality of minority group citizens of the United States.(102)(103)

* As of 1999, Bill Clinton and Al Gore oppose school vouchers. Both attended and sent their own children to private schools. (104)

* As of 1997, most members of the Black Congressional Caucus oppose school vouchers. They make $136,700 a year and 32% of them have sent or are sending at least one of their own children to private school. Nationally, 7% of all black children attend private schools. (102)(105)(106)

* As of 1996, teacher's unions oppose school vouchers. In Cleveland, 39.7% of public school teachers have sent or are sending at least one of their own children to private school. In Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia, the percentages are 44.6%, 36.3%, and 35.9% respectively. Nationally, 14.1% of all children attend private schools. (107)(106)

* As of 2000, the ACLU opposes school vouchers. The ACLU web site states:


School voucher schemes would force all taxpayers to support religious beliefs and practices with which they may strongly disagree.(108)

* In 1999, the ACLU supported the use of taxpayer money for an art exhibit that includes a painting of a woman covered with elephant dung and female sexual organs, entitled "The Holy Virgin Mary." As of 2000, the ACLU supports the use of taxpayer money to perform abortions. With reference to the issue of all taxpayers being forced to support something with which they may disagree, the ACLU asks the rhetorical question:


What about those who are morally or religiously opposed to abortion?

And answers:


Our tax dollars fund many programs that individual people oppose.(109)(110)(111)

* As of 2000, the majority of Democrats oppose school vouchers. (112)

* In 1998, Republicans in Congress passed a trial voucher program in Washington, D.C. that would have given vouchers to 2,000 schoolchildren from families with annual incomes of less than $16,000. Bill Clinton vetoed it. (113)

* As of 1997, 86.5% of blacks and 87.4% of whites between the ages of 25 and 29 have high school diplomas. (114)

* SATs are not designed to measure intelligence. They are designed to predict a student's performance during their first year of college. (115)

* As of 1999, black students score an average of 199 points lower on the SATs than white students. (116)

* As of 1994 at the majority of universities, black applicants are accepted at approximately twice the rate of white applicants. (117)

* As of 1999, the college graduation rate of black students is about half the graduation rate of white students. (118)

* In 1998, the Princeton University Press published The Shape of the River, a book written by William Bowen from Princeton and Derek Bok from Harvard. Based on their research, the authors of the book conclude that racial preferences at universities have been beneficial and do not have the problems that opponents of racial preferences say they have. (119)

* For their research, they use a sample of black students with a graduation rate of 75%. As of 1999, 26% of black students graduate within 5 years of entering college. (119)(115)

* As of April of 1999, the collectors of the data used in this book refuse to allow any breakdown of the data by college. (119)

* The book does not attempt to research the effect that racial preferences have on individuals who are academically qualified, but are denied admission to colleges as a result of such programs. (119)

* The book states that the low rate at which black students graduate is not caused by affirmative action in college admission processes. The result of their study is that black students graduate at higher rates from colleges that have the highest average SAT scores. (119)

* The study does not compare the differences in graduation rates between minorities admitted to college with SAT scores in line with the university average versus minorities whose SAT scores are significantly below the average. (119)

* Statistics from Cal Berkeley, from 1982 through 1987:



Graduation rate for students admitted as a result of racial preferences

Graduation rate for students admitted under normal admissions criteria

Black 18% 42%
Hispanic 22% 55%



* Blacks admitted to law school under normal admissions criteria are three times more likely to pass the bar exam than blacks admitted to law school as a result of racial preferences. (18)


* In October of 1999 on CNBC, Bryant Gumbel was asked, "Is it hard holding your own views in check?" Gumbel responded:


In terms of my political views, I hold them in check. I don't think that someone who watches is inclined to think I'm one way or the other.(121)

* In November of 1994 on the "Today" show, Bryant Gumbel said to J.C. Watts, a black Republican Congressman:


You're aligned to a party which owes many of its victories to the so-called religious right and other conservative extremists who are historically insensitive to minority concerns. That doesn't bother you?(122)

* The Republican Party was formed on the basis of eliminating slavery. Anti-slavery Democrats, including U.S. Senators Salmon Chase and Lyman Trumbull, switched to the Republican Party for this reason. At the first Republican national convention in 1856, Republicans established a platform calling for elimination of slavery in all federal territories. (59)

* Leading up to the election of Abraham Lincoln (the first Republican President), Southern Democrats were stating that a "Black Republican" presidential victory would be cause for secession. In the period between Lincoln's election and when he took office, seven Southern states seceded. (59)

* The 13th and 14th Amendments to the Constitution were championed by what were known as "Radical Republicans." The 13th Amendment abolished slavery and the 14th Amendment gave all people the freedoms outlined in the Constitution / Bill of Rights. (59)

* In 1957, Orval Faubus, the Democrat Governor of Arkansas, ordered the Arkansas National Guard to physically block the integration of 9 black students at a Little Rock high school. Faubus withdrew the Arkansas National Guard after Republican President Dwight Eisenhower instructed his Attorney General to obtain an injunction against Faubus. Subsequently, a mob formed which prevented the children from entering the school. This prompted President Eisenhower to send several companies of the United States Army to disperse the mob and allow for the school to be integrated. (59)

* The Republican Party platforms of 1952 and 1956 called for civil rights legislation. Republicans sponsored a civil rights bill in 1956, which was stopped by Democrats in the Senate. Republicans sponsored a civil rights bill in 1957, and Democrats in the Senate voted to remove enforcement provisions from the bill. In his 1960 "State of the Union" address, Eisenhower called for a new civil rights law to enforce voting rights for minorities. The bill was passed by Congress and signed into law by Eisenhower over the objections of Southern Democrats who conducted one of the longest filibusters in the history of the Senate in attempts to stop the bill. (59)


* In June of 1999, Dan Rather appeared on CNN's show "Crossfire." He was asked:


Why is it that you are the epitome of the left-wing liberal media in the mind of every conservative I've ever talked to? What did you do to get that reputation?(123)

* He responded:


I remained an independent reporter who would not report the news the way they wanted it or – from the left or the right. I'm a lifetime reporter. All I ever dreamed of was being a journalist, and the definition of journalist to me was the guy who's an honest broker of information…. I do subscribe to the idea of: "Play no favorites and pull no punches."(123)

* In January of 2000, Dan Rather stated that the Reverend Calvin Butts of Harlem is "considered a moderate." (124)

* The next month, from the pulpit of his church, Butts stated in reference to New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani:


Go to hell white man.(125)(126)

* In July of 1999 on the CBS Evening News, Dan Rather referred to the NAACP as, one of the nation's "most respected" civil rights organizations. (128)

* While head of the NAACP, Benjamin Chavis stated that the NAACP has a "sacred covenant" with Louis Farrakhan and made him a lifetime member. (18)

* In June of 1992, the official newspaper of Louis Farrakhan's Nation of Islam published these words:


The God who taught me calls the white man the skunk of the planet earth. He is so wicked and so filthy that God calls him the skunk of the planet earth.(130)

* As of 1999, Kweisi Mfume is the head of the NAACP. While the leader of the Black Congressional Caucus, Mfume stated that the Black Congressional Caucus will "enter a sacred covenant" with the Nation of Islam. After being criticized for this statement, he denied any formal association with the Nation of Islam (131)

* When he was later appointed as head of the NAACP, Mfume asked the NAACP to "respect" the Nation of Islam. (131)


* In 1991, Al Gore stated:


It is my hope that what we are seeing now is an end to the divisive politics of race….(132)

* The Clinton administration has stated that the census undercounts minorities, and established a plan for the 2000 census in which 90% of the population would be counted, and statisticians would determine the race and location of the remaining 10%. Republicans opposed this plan. (74)(133)

* At a NAACP convention in 1998, Al Gore stated:


Republicans know theirs is the wrong agenda for African-Americans. They don't even want to count you in the census.(133)


* In October of 1999, Republicans in the Senate voted against the nomination of Ronnie White, a black judicial nominee appointed by Bill Clinton. (134)

* Several law enforcement groups in Ronnie White's home state of Missouri asked the Senate not to appoint him. While on the Missouri Supreme Court, White had dissented three times more often than the other judges in death penalty cases. (134)

* Bill Clinton called the rejection, "a disgraceful act of partisan politics," and "strong evidence that for those who believe that the Senate treats minority and women judicial nominees unequally." (134)

* Democrat Senator Patrick Leahy stated:


I hope the United States has not reverted to a time in its history when there was a color test on nominations.(134)

* John Ashcroft, a Republican Senator from Missouri, led the effort to defeat the nomination of Ronnie White.


* As a United States Senator, John Ashcroft supported and voted for over 90% of all black judicial nominees. (135)


* As the Governor of Missouri, John Ashcroft:


  • Signed a law designating Martin Luther King's birthday as a state holiday.

  • Signed a law in Missouri establishing the state's first historic site in honor of an African-American.

  • Established an academic excellence award in the name of George Washington Carver.

  • Appointed black judges to Missouri courts, including the first black ever appointed the state's second highest court. (134)(135)

* A Reuters article was written by John Whitesides regarding the rejection of Ronnie White. It stated that Ashcroft, "led the charge against White's nomination." The article contained 3 quotes from Democrats who made allegations of racism against Republicans, and one quote from a Republican stating that race had no role in this. The article contained none of the facts shown above regarding Ashcroft's legislative record. (134)

* Asian-American Bill Lann Lee was nominated by Bill Clinton to be the head of the Justice Department's Civil Rights Division. Republicans said they opposed the appointment of Bill Lann Lee because he is a proponent of racial preferences, gerrymandering, and forced bussing. (136)

* At a press conference to support the appointment of Bill Lann Lee, Democrat Senator Barbara Mikulski stated,


I don't think the United States Senate should be the forum attacking Chinese-Americans.(136)

* As she stepped off the podium, she was overheard saying to Ted Kennedy,


I hate to do that, but we have no choice.(136)

* In June of 1996 during a national radio address, Bill Clinton stated:


I have vivid and painful memories of black churches being burned in my own state when I was a child.(140)

* According to the head of the Arkansas NAACP and the Arkansas State Historian, there had never been a black church burning in Arkansas. (141)


* As of 1999, boys raised outside of two parent families go to prison at twice the rate of boys raised in two parent families. (142)

* As of 1998, 28% of children live in single parent households. 70% of children in prisons and reform schools come from homes without fathers. (142)

* As of 2000, children between the ages of 3 and 17 who live in households without a biological father are treated for behavioral/emotional problems at three times the rate of children living in homes with both biological parents. (142)

* Children born to unwed mothers:












* As of 1999, about 12.4% of the population is black. (145)

* 1995 statistics:


Crime Percentage of those
arrested who are black
aggravated assault 38.4%
burglary 31.0%
forcible rape 42.4%
fraud 34.7%
murder and non negligent manslaughter 54.4%
robbery 59.5%
vehicle theft 38.3%



* The ACLU states that the war on crime "disproportionately targets young men of color." (147)

* One in seven black men of voting age have been convicted of a felony. Convicted felons are not allowed to vote in some states. The ACLU has argued that convicted felons should be allowed to vote. (148)

* ACLU Lawyer Mark Kappelhoff stated that these felony statistics are "disturbing" and:


are not entirely unexpected in light of the racial disparity found throughout the nation's criminal justice system where black men are being stopped, arrested, convicted and sentenced in proportions far higher than is right or fair in a democratic society.(148)

* New Jersey statistics for the first four months of 2000:

  % of the state's population (1998) # of stops made by state troopers % of total arrests resulting from stops
White 68.8% 73.6% 42.5%
Black 12.9% 13.1% 46.3%
Hispanic 12.4% 6.9% 10.8%
Asian/Pacific Islander     5.6% 6.8% 0.3%


* In the United States during 1995, 43% of people arrested for violent crimes were black. (187)

* In 1995, victims of violent crimes identified 38% of their assailants as black. (188)

* In 1995, black victims of violent crimes identified 80% of their assailants as black. (188)

* Statistics from a 1993 Justice Department study of felony defendants in the 75 largest counties:


  Blacks Whites
Prosecution Rate 66% 69%
Conviction Rate 75% 78%

Seven other studies with similar results are cited in a book written by John Perazzo entitled, The Myths That Divide Us. (18)

* According to FBI arrest data, Asians are arrested at one half the rate of whites. Of the more than 50 articles about race and violence reviewed for this list of facts, no writer or interviewee suggested that police have a bias in favor of Asians, and that whites are unfairly targeted. (149)

* As of 1992, for every 14 violent crimes committed in the United States, one person is sentenced to prison. (191)


* Hate crime laws stiffen the penalty for committing a crime if the perpetrator's motivation is based upon hatred towards the victim's race. (150)

* In a 1992 murder case, the Supreme Court ruled that a white man's membership in the Aryan Brotherhood could not be considered with regards to invoking the death penalty. (151)

* In a 1983 murder case, the Supreme Court ruled that a black man's membership in the Black Liberation Army could be considered with regards to invoking the death penalty. (151)

* 1994 statistics:  
Number of violent crimes committed by whites against blacks Number of violent crimes committed by blacks against whites
135,400 1,140,700

Number of whites charged with anti-black hate crimes Number of blacks charged with anti-white hate crimes
2,336 718


* During 1995, there were 360 murders, 292 rapes, and 7,228 assaults reported in Washington D.C. Out of these, six were classified as hate crimes. (150)

* In 1997, 636 people in the United States were charged with committing hate crimes against Hispanics. (149)

* The Clinton administration FBI recorded no hate crimes committed by Hispanics because they classified all Hispanic perpetrators as whites. With regard to Hispanics, the FBI classified attackers and victims in this manner:  

-When a white attacked a Hispanic, the attacker was classified as white and the victim as Hispanic.
-When a Hispanic attacked a white, the attacker was classified as white.
-When a Hispanic attacked a black, the attacker was classified as white.
-When a Hispanic attacked a Hispanic, both attacker and victim were classified as white. (149)

* In November of 1999, black actor Danny Glover, his daughter, and a friend of hers were bypassed 5 times while trying to hail a cab in New York City. Later that same day, a taxi driver refused to allow Glover to sit in the front seat of his cab. Glover had asked to sit up front because he has a bad hip and wanted to stretch out his legs. He filed a formal complaint with the New York City Taxi & Limousine Commission and held a press conference to call attention to what had happened. (152)(153)(154)

* Glover's lawyer stated that most of the taxi drivers were "people of color." When asked if any of the taxi drivers were black, Glover responded, "Of course." (153)(154)(155)

* The following news organizations broadcast or published stories regarding Glover's complaint without mentioning the fact that the majority of the cabbies who bypassed Glover were minorities: ABC, NBC, CNN, National Public Radio, New York Cablevision, The L.A. Times, The New York Times, The New York Post, The Chicago Tribune, The Greenwich Village Gazette and The Philadelphia Inquirer. Some of the stories included words such as "biased", "racist", "discrimination", and "bigoted." (156)(157)(158)(159)(160)(161)(162)(163)(164)(165)(166)

* New York City prohibits taxi drivers from refusing rides to people based upon their race or based upon the destination requested anywhere within the city. (160)

* In November of 1999, the mayor of New York City, Republican Rudy Giuliani responded to Danny Glover's complaint by strengthening enforcement of a program called "Operation Refusal." Operation Refusal is a sting operation whereby undercover police officers find cabbies that refuse to take them to certain neighborhoods, or bypass a potential black patron to pick up a white one. If caught, the officers fine the cab driver, suspend their license, and take their cab to a police precinct where the owner or another licensed driver must pick it up. (167)

* When Giuliani strengthened enforcement of "Operation Refusal," he wrote:

Six or ten years ago, when the city was at least twice as dangerous, taxi drivers would sometimes use a fear of crime as a rationale or an excuse for why they might not pick up a particular person. Today in New York City, cab drivers are operating under a reasonable degree of safety.(167)

* In the first four months of 2000, 9 cab drivers were slain in New York City. All of them were minorities (1 person was Asian-Indian, 1 person was of Middle-Eastern descent, and 7 were of Hispanic and/or African descent) As of late April 2000, police have made arrests in 2 out of the 9 murders. (168)(169)(170)

* As of 2000, taxicab drivers are murdered on the job at a rate of 50 times the national average of all other occupations. The on the job murder rate of taxi drivers is the highest of any profession. It is more than 4 times the rate of the next highest occupations (sales counter clerks, police officers/detectives, and security guards.) (172)

* As of 1997, about 50% of black males in Washington, DC between the ages of 18 and 35 are under court supervision or being sought on arrest warrants. (171)  


* George Washington Carver was born a slave near the end of the Civil War. He was not allowed to attend the school where he lived because it only admitted white children.  

* Around the age of 14, he discovered a school for black youth in a nearby town and left home to attend it. Over the next ten years, he worked to pay for his food and shelter while earning a high school diploma. 

* At about 24 years of age, he was accepted into a college and used almost the last of his savings to travel there. When he arrived the principal told him there had been a "mistake." Carver produced his letter of acceptance and replied, "Your letter said—I have it here." The principal cut him off: "I don't care what it said. You didn't tell me you were a Negro." 

* Carver worked for five more years before applying to and being accepted at another university. After his first year, he transferred to the nation's leading agricultural college and graduated near the top of his class. He stayed at the school for another two years and earned a master's degree in agricultural and bacterial botany. Throughout his academic career, he labored long hours to earn his room, board and books. 

* George Washington Carver is primarily known for developing hundreds of products derived from peanuts, but he is also responsible for many other important contributions to agriculture. He hybridized "whole families of fruits and plants" to make them "resistant to fungus attack," pioneered the science of chemurgy (the utilization of organic materials for industrial proposes), and was directly responsible for multiple massive increases in farmland productivity.

* In the early 1900's, Thomas Edison offered Carver a job for over $100,000 a year, more than 65 times what he was earning. He declined this and many other lucrative offers to stay in his position at Tuskegee University for a period of 46 years in which he declined every salary increase. When it was said to him: "If you had all that money, you could help your people," Carver replied, "If I had all that money I might forget about my people." In lieu of accepting these offers, Carver helped those who asked for his expertise free of charge, spending hours a day personally answering the letters of major industrialists, farmers, and individuals who had questions about their home gardens.

* Henry Ford described George Washington Carver as "the world's greatest living scientist." (193)


* George Washington Carver declared:

We are brothers, all of us, no matter of what race or color or condition; children of the same Heavenly Father. We rise together or we fall together.(196)

* In 1904, Branch Rickey was a 21 year-old baseball coach at Ohio Wesleyan. On a road trip to play Notre Dame, a hotel clerk refused to give a room to the lone black player on Rickey's team, Charles Thomas. This infuriated Rickey and he ordered a cot for Thomas in his own room. (173)

* In 1942, Rickey became the general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers. At the time, the baseball Commissioner refused to allow blacks and whites to play together. Rickey instructed his scouts to watch the Negro leagues and when a new Commissioner was appointed, he signed Jackie Robinson to the Dodger's triple-A club in Montreal. (173)(174)

* Major league owners got word of Rickey's intention to bring Jackie Robinson into the major leagues, and voted 15-1 to keep a "gentlemen's agreement" banning blacks. Branch Rickey responded by approaching the new Commissioner, "Happy" Chandler, and getting his support to let Robinson play. (173)

* Rickey and Robinson received hundreds of death threats, and a number of the players on the Dodgers signed a petition against letting Robinson play. (173)(175)

* In April of 1947, Jackie Robinson became the first black player in the major leagues. (173)

* The Dodgers won the pennant in 1947 and Jackie Robinson was chosen as the Rookie of the Year in the National League. (173)

* By 1958, every team in major league baseball was integrated. (173)

* Branch Rickey's grandson said of Branch:

Never once did I hear him say he broke the color barrier. Never once did I hear him say he signed Jackie Robinson.


His philosophy was that if you do something morally right, it is an obligation of yours.(173)

* In his office, Branch Rickey posted a sign on the wall that read:

He that will not reason is a bigot.
He that cannot reason is a fool.
He that dares not reason is a slave. (173)

* In the 1780's, William Wilberforce was a young member of the British Parliament who represented the biggest and most influential constituency in England. He was a personal friend of the Prime Minister. (176)

* After becoming a Christian, Wilberforce stood up on the floor of Parliament and denounced slavery. He went from being a political insider to the leader of a small minority. (176)(177)

* Political opponents argued that abolishing slavery would destroy thousands of jobs, result in a loss of revenue and hurt the economy. (176)

* Wilberforce and his allies worked twenty years for the abolition of the slave trade, printing and distributing brochures, circulating petitions, and giving speeches in churches and public places. (176)

* In 1807, Parliament voted to outlaw the slave trade. In 1833, the same year that Wilberforce passed on, Parliament voted to abolish slavery throughout the British Empire. (176)(177)

* After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor in 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the military to put selected civilians into internment camps to protect the U.S. against espionage and sabotage. This was done without requiring any proof that an individual was disloyal or a threat to the United States. (178)(179)

* For a period of years, 110,000 people of Japanese descent, including 70,000 who were born in the United States, were detained in camps with barbed wire fences and armed guards. They were allowed to take limited belongings with them and some families lost everything they owned. (178)(179)

* During this time period in the United States, people of Japanese descent were labeled as traitors and members of the "enemy race." (180)

* Later during the war, a limited number of Japanese were allowed to volunteer for a segregated combat unit. This combat unit, the 100th Battalion / 442nd Regimental Combat Team is the most decorated military unit in the history of the United States. (178)

* While fighting for the United States, 700 men in this unit were killed in action. The unit was awarded 9,500 Purple Hearts. (178)


  1. Textbook: Principles of Genetics. By D. Peter Snustad & Michael J. Simmons. John Wiley & Sons, 2006. Fourth edition. Page 785: "Compared to other species, the humans species is genetically rather uniform. At the nucleotide level, humans have about one-fourth the genetic variation of chimpanzees and about one-tenth that of Drosophila. Furthermore, most of the genetic variation in the human species—perhaps 85 to 95 percent of it—is within rather than between populations."   Teaching guide: "Human Genetic Variation." By BSCS and Videodiscovery under a contract from the National Institutes of Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, 1999. Accessed at Page 8: "Furthermore, genetic variation around the world is distributed in a rather continuous manner; there are no sharp, discontinuous boundaries between human population groups. In fact, research results consistently demonstrate that about 85 percent of all human genetic variation exists within human populations, whereas about only 15 percent of variation exists between populations (Figure 4). That is, research reveals that Homo sapiens is one continuously variable, interbreeding species. Ongoing investigation of human genetic variation has even led biologists and physical anthropologists to rethink traditional notions of human racial groups. The amount of genetic variation between these traditional classifications actually falls below the level that taxonomists use to designate subspecies, the taxonomic category for other species that corresponds to the designation of race in Homo sapiens. This finding has caused some biologists to call the validity of race as a biological construct into serious question."
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  45. Determined by comparing dates from the following sources:
    a) Dates that Congress passed legislation (3/14/96) and Bill Clinton signed into law (4/24/96): "Anti-Terrorism Bill [S735] – Conference Report." Viewed at in April of 2000.
    b) Date that Occidental's Political Action Committee gave $100,000 to the Democratic National Committee (3/29/96), and the fact that this donation is twice the amount of any other donation that Occidental's PAC has given in the past 9 years (nine years is maximum available timeframe for this database): "Individual Donor Search – Occidental." Center for Responsive Politics. Viewed at in April of 2000.
    c) Date that the chairman of Occidental was an overnight guest at the White House and slept in the Lincoln bedroom: Article: "Gore campaign stumbles over threat to tribe." By Damian Whitworth. London Times, March 13, 2000. "Since Mr Gore joined the Clinton ticket in 1992, according to a study by the Centre for Public Integrity, Occidental has contributed more than $470,000 to the Democratic Party, including a $100,000 cheque that was written two days after the present chairman, Ray Irani, stayed in the Lincoln bedroom at the White House, and $35,550 to Mr Gore himself."

    Timeline and Links

    3/14/96 Congress passes Antiterrorism bill (S. 735, Section 321).
    3/27/96 Occidental chairman Ray Irani sleeps over White House.
    3/29/96 Occidental's PAC donates unprecedented $100,000 to DNC.
    4/24/96 Clinton signs Antiterrorism bill into law (Public Law 104-132).
    8/23/96 Anti-terrorism law goes into effect.
    8/23/96 Clinton administration Treasury Department creates exception to law, allowing Occidental to pursue oil deal in Sudan.
    11/96 Sudan bars Occidental from oil deal.
    1/23/97 Washington Post story published. Clinton administration says there was nothing improper in allowing Occidental to pursue deal.
    11/3/97 Clinton issues Executive Order 13067closing the exception. Calls Sudan an "extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States", and declares "a national emergency to deal with that threat."
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    40- "Percent distribution of single-offender victimizations, by type of crime and perceived race of offender."
    42- "Percent distribution of single-offender victimizations, based on race of victims, by type of crime and perceived race of offender."
    46- "Percent distribution of multiple-offender victimizations, by type of crime and perceived race of offenders." The table does not contain data regarding the average number of offenders that are involved in multiple offender crimes. The minimum possible number is obviously 2. An estimate of 2.5 is used. This low number is used to give weight to the ACLU's statements. In other words, blacks committed a greater percentage of the total of multiple offender victimizations than single offender victimizations. Data on mixed race multiple offender victimizations could not be used because the table has no breakdown by race.
    48- "Percent distribution of multiple-offender victimizations by type of crime, race of victims, and perceived race of offenders." The table has no breakdown of completed vs. non-completed violent crimes. The ratio for black offenders found in table 46 is used. Data on mixed race multiple offender victimizations could not be used because the table has no breakdown by race.
  189. "Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1999" U.S. Census Bureau, 1999. Number 34. Resident population by race, Hispanic Origin, and state:1998.
  190. "Entire Division Totals, January –April 2000." New Jersey State Police. Viewed at in June of 2000.
  191. Calculations performed with 1992 data from:
    a) "1992 Uniform Crime Reports." Page 10. Federal Bureau of Investigation.
    b) "1995 Sourcebook Of Criminal Justice Statistics." Pages 468, 480, 497, 499. U.S. Department of Justice
  192. Book: Lincoln on Leadership. By Donald T. Phillips II. Time Warner Books, 1992.
  193. Book: George Washington Carver: The Man Who Overcame." By Lawrence Elliot. Prentice-Hall, 1966.
  194. Inaugural Address of John Tyndall. British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1874. Accessed at
  195. Book: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. By Charles Darwin. John Murray, 1859. Accessed at
  196. Book: George Washington Carver: In His Own Words. Edited by Gary Kremer. University of Missouri Press, 1987. Page 166.

  197. "Republican Platform 2000: Renewing America's Purpose. Together." Adopted on August 31, 2000. Accessed at In the section entitled "Upholding the Rights of All."
  198. "The 2000 Democratic National Platform: Prosperity, Progress, and Peace." Adopted on August 15, 2000. Accessed at In the section entitled "Building One America," Page 36.

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